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Holiday heat wave for much of the eastern US.

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Louis apartment. Florida man found dead with dog bites. The temperature at the airport was 90 degrees Thursday, besting June 14, , for the highest mark ever recorded in the city, according to the National Weather Service. More than a third of the US will reach 90 degrees on Independence Day.

Across south Alaska, the mercury was expected to rise to record or near-record levels on the nation's rd birthday and continue at above-average levels through next week, the National Weather Service reports.

Last month was the warmest June on record, with an average temperature of June marks the 16th consecutive month in which average temperatures ranged above normal. Meanwhile, a large upper-level high pressure system is building over Alaska and will draw warm air from the south and blow winds offshore -- in the opposite direction of "sea breezes," which bring cooler air from over the ocean to the land, the Weather Service predicts. Alaska's warming ocean is putting food and jobs at risk, scientists say. Heat engines achieve higher efficiency when the difference between initial and final temperature is greater.

Another commonly considered model is the heat pump or refrigerator. Again there are four bodies: the working body, the hot reservoir, the cold reservoir, and the work reservoir. A single cycle starts with the working body colder than the cold reservoir, and then energy is taken in as heat by the working body from the cold reservoir.

Then the work reservoir does work on the working body, adding more to its internal energy, making it hotter than the hot reservoir. The hot working body passes heat to the hot reservoir, but still remains hotter than the cold reservoir. Then, by allowing it to expand without doing work on another body and without passing heat to another body, the working body is made colder than the cold reservoir. It can now accept heat transfer from the cold reservoir to start another cycle. The device has transported energy from a colder to a hotter reservoir, but this is not regarded as by an inanimate agency; rather, it is regarded as by the harnessing of work.

This is because work is supplied from the work reservoir, not just by a simple thermodynamic process, but by a cycle of thermodynamic operations and processes, which may be regarded as directed by an animate or harnessing agency. Accordingly, the cycle is still in accord with the second law of thermodynamics. The efficiency of a heat pump is best when the temperature difference between the hot and cold reservoirs is least. Functionally, such engines are used in two ways, distinguishing a target reservoir and a resource or surrounding reservoir.

A heat pump transfers heat, to the hot reservoir as the target, from the resource or surrounding reservoir. A refrigerator transfers heat, from the cold reservoir as the target, to the resource or surrounding reservoir. The target reservoir may be regarded as leaking: when the target leaks hotness to the surroundings, heat pumping is used; when the target leaks coldness to the surroundings, refrigeration is used. The engines harness work to overcome the leaks.


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  • According to Planck , there are three main conceptual approaches to heat. The other two are macroscopic approaches. One is the approach through the law of conservation of energy taken as prior to thermodynamics, with a mechanical analysis of processes, for example in the work of Helmholtz.

    This mechanical view is taken in this article as currently customary for thermodynamic theory.

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    The other macroscopic approach is the thermodynamic one, which admits heat as a primitive concept, which contributes, by scientific induction [50] to knowledge of the law of conservation of energy. This view is widely taken as the practical one, quantity of heat being measured by calorimetry. Bailyn also distinguishes the two macroscopic approaches as the mechanical and the thermodynamic. It regards quantity of energy transferred as heat as a primitive concept coherent with a primitive concept of temperature, measured primarily by calorimetry.

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    A calorimeter is a body in the surroundings of the system, with its own temperature and internal energy; when it is connected to the system by a path for heat transfer, changes in it measure heat transfer. The mechanical view was pioneered by Helmholtz and developed and used in the twentieth century, largely through the influence of Max Born. According to Born, the transfer of internal energy between open systems that accompanies transfer of matter "cannot be reduced to mechanics".

    Nevertheless, for the thermodynamical description of non-equilibrium processes, it is desired to consider the effect of a temperature gradient established by the surroundings across the system of interest when there is no physical barrier or wall between system and surroundings, that is to say, when they are open with respect to one another. The impossibility of a mechanical definition in terms of work for this circumstance does not alter the physical fact that a temperature gradient causes a diffusive flux of internal energy, a process that, in the thermodynamic view, might be proposed as a candidate concept for transfer of energy as heat.

    In this circumstance, it may be expected that there may also be active other drivers of diffusive flux of internal energy, such as gradient of chemical potential which drives transfer of matter, and gradient of electric potential which drives electric current and iontophoresis; such effects usually interact with diffusive flux of internal energy driven by temperature gradient, and such interactions are known as cross-effects. If cross-effects that result in diffusive transfer of internal energy were also labeled as heat transfers, they would sometimes violate the rule that pure heat transfer occurs only down a temperature gradient, never up one.

    They would also contradict the principle that all heat transfer is of one and the same kind, a principle founded on the idea of heat conduction between closed systems. One might to try to think narrowly of heat flux driven purely by temperature gradient as a conceptual component of diffusive internal energy flux, in the thermodynamic view, the concept resting specifically on careful calculations based on detailed knowledge of the processes and being indirectly assessed. In these circumstances, if perchance it happens that no transfer of matter is actualized, and there are no cross-effects, then the thermodynamic concept and the mechanical concept coincide, as if one were dealing with closed systems.

    But when there is transfer of matter, the exact laws by which temperature gradient drives diffusive flux of internal energy, rather than being exactly knowable, mostly need to be assumed, and in many cases are practically unverifiable. Consequently, when there is transfer of matter, the calculation of the pure 'heat flux' component of the diffusive flux of internal energy rests on practically unverifiable assumptions. In many writings in this context, the term "heat flux" is used when what is meant is therefore more accurately called diffusive flux of internal energy; such usage of the term "heat flux" is a residue of older and now obsolete language usage that allowed that a body may have a "heat content".

    In the kinetic theory , heat is explained in terms of the microscopic motions and interactions of constituent particles, such as electrons, atoms, and molecules.

    Heat as a form of energy

    It is as a component of internal energy. In microscopic terms, heat is a transfer quantity, and is described by a transport theory, not as steadily localized kinetic energy of particles. Heat transfer arises from temperature gradients or differences, through the diffuse exchange of microscopic kinetic and potential particle energy, by particle collisions and other interactions.

    An early and vague expression of this was made by Francis Bacon. In statistical mechanics , for a closed system no transfer of matter , heat is the energy transfer associated with a disordered, microscopic action on the system, associated with jumps in occupation numbers of the energy levels of the system, without change in the values of the energy levels themselves. A mathematical definition can be formulated for small increments of quasi-static adiabatic work in terms of the statistical distribution of an ensemble of microstates.

    Quantity of heat transferred can be measured by calorimetry, or determined through calculations based on other quantities.

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    Calorimetry is the empirical basis of the idea of quantity of heat transferred in a process. The transferred heat is measured by changes in a body of known properties, for example, temperature rise, change in volume or length, or phase change, such as melting of ice. A calculation of quantity of heat transferred can rely on a hypothetical quantity of energy transferred as adiabatic work and on the first law of thermodynamics. Such calculation is the primary approach of many theoretical studies of quantity of heat transferred. The discipline of heat transfer , typically considered an aspect of mechanical engineering and chemical engineering , deals with specific applied methods by which thermal energy in a system is generated, or converted, or transferred to another system.

    Although the definition of heat implicitly means the transfer of energy, the term heat transfer encompasses this traditional usage in many engineering disciplines and laymen language. Heat transfer is generally described as including the mechanisms of heat conduction , heat convection , thermal radiation , but may include mass transfer and heat in processes of phase changes.

    Convection may be described as the combined effects of conduction and fluid flow. From the thermodynamic point of view, heat flows into a fluid by diffusion to increase its energy, the fluid then transfers advects this increased internal energy not heat from one location to another, and this is then followed by a second thermal interaction which transfers heat to a second body or system, again by diffusion. This entire process is often regarded as an additional mechanism of heat transfer, although technically, "heat transfer" and thus heating and cooling occurs only on either end of such a conductive flow, but not as a result of flow.

    Thus, conduction can be said to "transfer" heat only as a net result of the process, but may not do so at every time within the complicated convective process. In an lecture entitled On Matter, Living Force, and Heat , James Prescott Joule characterized the terms latent heat and sensible heat as components of heat each affecting distinct physical phenomena, namely the potential and kinetic energy of particles, respectively. Latent heat is the heat released or absorbed by a chemical substance or a thermodynamic system during a change of state that occurs without a change in temperature.

    Such a process may be a phase transition , such as the melting of ice or the boiling of water. Heat capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to an object to the resulting temperature change. Heat capacity is a physical property of a substance, which means that it depends on the state and properties of the substance under consideration. The specific heats of monatomic gases, such as helium, are nearly constant with temperature. Diatomic gases such as hydrogen display some temperature dependence, and triatomic gases e. Before the development of the laws of thermodynamics, heat was measured by changes in the states of the participating bodies.

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    In general, most bodies expand on heating. In this circumstance, heating a body at a constant volume increases the pressure it exerts on its constraining walls, while heating at a constant pressure increases its volume. Beyond this, most substances have three ordinarily recognized states of matter , solid, liquid, and gas. Some can also exist in a plasma.

    Many have further, more finely differentiated, states of matter, such as for example, glass , and liquid crystal. In many cases, at fixed temperature and pressure, a substance can exist in several distinct states of matter in what might be viewed as the same 'body'. For example, ice may float in a glass of water. Then the ice and the water are said to constitute two phases within the 'body'. Definite rules are known, telling how distinct phases may coexist in a 'body'.

    Mostly, at a fixed pressure, there is a definite temperature at which heating causes a solid to melt or evaporate, and a definite temperature at which heating causes a liquid to evaporate. In such cases, cooling has the reverse effects.